Oleh Olzhych. Recruiting: Impossible. To Liquidate

Another person has been added to the list of leaders of the Ukrainian National Liberation Movement, who were meant to be liquidated by Stalin’s special services on the Kremlin’s instructions. Andriy Melnyk, Stepan Bandera and Mykola Kapustyanskyi the plans of whose assassination have recently become known from the intelligence documents, have now been joined by Oleh Kandyba (pseudonym – Olzhych) – one of the leaders of the Provid (leadership- Transl.) of Ukrainian Nationalists, social and political activist, poet, archeologist. The declassified documents from the Branch State Archives of the Foreign Intelligence Service of Ukraine shed light on how it happened.

“Promethean Nations Must Win the Struggle Against Russia”

Documents were found in the archive of the Foreign Intelligence Service of Ukraine, which testify that one of the subjects to activity of the GPU/NKVD/MGB/KGB of the USSR for many years was the so-called Promethean movement and especially its Ukrainian component. Moscow opened operational cases against Ukrainian leaders who actively supported Poles – the founders of the movement, and tried in every possible way to hinder their activities. This information, in particular about the Warsaw Prometheus Club, branches in France, Finland, Turkey and Harbin, may be of some value to researchers of history and supporters of the Promethean movement, whose followers still periodically hold international forums.

The Unknown Plan for Assassination of Stepan Bandera

The Branch State Archives of the Foreign Intelligence Service of Ukraine contain materials, hitherto unknown to the general public, about the preparation by the NKGB bodies at the end of 1944 of the operation to liquidate one of the leaders of Ukrainian nationalists Stepan Bandera in Berlin. The plan of special measures of the 4th Directorate of the NKSB of the Ukrainian SSR, certificates, diagrams and other documents published for the first time make it possible to significantly supplement the history of the attempts and assassination of the leader of the so-called revolutionary wing of the OUN and to reveal the mechanisms of the activity of the Soviet special services aimed at destroying the Ukrainian national liberation movement.

Ukrainian Insurgent Army. “For the Freedom of Enslaved Peoples!”

Among the archival materials there is a lot of information about how representatives of different nationalities fought in the Ukrainian Insurgent Army. On the one hand, this is confirmed by the NKGB- MGB operational documents mentioning the presence in UPA of separate detachments formed on a national basis, on the other hand – there are the insurgents’ leaflets calling on Uzbeks, Georgians, Armenians, Russians, Chechens, Bashkirs, other peoples of Asia and Siberia to join the ranks of the UPA and fight together against the Moscow-bolshevik and Hitler invaders.

Ukrainian Insurgent Army. The Struggle by Means of the Printed Word

Among the materials on the activities of the UPA stored in the archives of the Foreign Intelligence Service of Ukraine there are some variously themed leaflets, which were addressed to different groups and strata of the population: city and rural intelligentsia, teachers and tutors, workers and peasants, soldiers and commanders of the Red Army, NKVD -NKGB -MGB internal troops, representatives of other nationalities and more. By content, they can be divided into information, explanatory and leaflets-calls. Each of these varieties had its own peculiarities.

Ukrainian Insurgent Army. Intelligence Service (1945–1955)

After the Second World War, the Soviet authorities mobilized huge forces against the Ukrainian national resistance movement in Western Ukraine. The Kremlin was aware that the activities of OUN and UPA hinder the process of establishment of communist power in Ukraine, have a negative impact on the moods in the society, and create the world community’s impression unfavorable for the communist regime. Huge forces were deployed to suppress and defeat the underground. The underground suffered significant losses, but did not stop the struggle. The Ukrainian liberation movement proved to be well-organized, ideologically hardened and uncompromising in its desire to preserve its strength at any cost for further struggle for Ukraine's independence. At the same time, the members of the resistance movement, who found themselves in a rather difficult situation, were forced to finally switch from offensive (insurgent) to defensive (deep underground) tactics of struggle. The new tactics consisted of conspiratorial actions in underground conditions and moving to the struggle with the use of small units. In this scheme of resistance, an important place, as during the Second World War, was given to intelligence and counter-intelligence.

Ukrainian Insurgent Army. Intelligence Service (1943–1945)

A separate page in the twentieth century history of the intelligence service and of special services in general was written by the intelligence units of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army, which had to act in specific conditions and obtain the necessary information in confrontation simultaneously with the Hitler occupiers, regular units of the red army, soviet partisan units and structures of the NKGB. Their experience became the object of study by many special services of the world.

Ukrainian Insurgent Army. From an Interview with Stepan Bandera

One of the sources of information about the Ukrainian Insurgent Army is the memories, testimonies, as well as articles and interviews of the leaders of the liberation movement on the pages of Ukrainian and foreign periodicals. In particular, a lot of interesting information about the activities of UPA is contained in head of the OUN(b) Provid Stepan Bandera’s interview to foreign journalists.

Ukrainian Insurgent Army. Structure

Among the archival materials of the Intelligence there are a number of documents, maps and diagrams, which describe and depict the structure of the UPA. According to this information, the organizational structure of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army was simple, but at the same time flexible enough to efficiently use human and material resources. The UPA was divided into groups, groups – into military districts, and districts – into tactical sections. The main tactical unit was sotnya (a hundred/company), which was part of kurin (battalion). Sotnyas consisted of chotas (platoons), and those – of riys (squads).

Ukrainian Insurgent Army. History of its Emergence

To the 80th anniversary of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (celebrated on October 14) and the Day of the Defender of Ukraine, the Foreign Intelligence Service of Ukraine publishes a number of materials on the history of the UPA, its structure, weapons, tactics, personnel and training, based on archival documents. Special attention is paid to the peculiarities of the activities of the intelligence units of the insurgents during the Second World War and after it — in deep underground.